History of Nanotechnology :
Prefix of "Nano " means (1×10-9) . Nanotechnology deals with various structures of materials which have sizes about 1/1000000 meter . Although , Nanotechnology is a new word , but, useful tools and Nano metrics structures was available in times past and their antiquity dates back to the beginning of life of the earth . Conchiferous and snail like molluscans creates hard shells which have inner surfaces rain bow . These shells creates this form by decorating calcium carbonate in units of Nano structures which connected to each other by a hard glue compounded of carbohydrates and protein . Shells are a natural and empirical evidence that structures which obtained from Nano articles can be more firm and stable that common structures .
It is said that roman glass-makers in century and made glasses which had Nano sizes metal ."Licor Gous" bowl has a picture of Nikor gous King which is made out of calcic glasses of sudiom carbonate and contions gold and silver particles .When light puts in this bowl , color of bowl changes from green to dark red . Supernational diversity of beautiful colors in windows of middle ages churches resulted from metal Nano particles in these glasses.
Potential importance of clusters was determined by an irish chennist by the name of " Robert boil " and he blamed Aristotele belief which says that material consists of and important elements ( water , solid , fire and climate ) but he suggested that tiny particles of materials combine by various methods to create corepsels . He says about very small atomic masses or small clusters which can ,t break up to their particles easily . In 1857 Michale Farady published his essay ( Transactions of Royal Society Philosophical ) . In this essay , he tried to explain about effects of metal particles on color of church , s windows . Although , suitable methods didn ,t propose to produce Nano structures till 1996. These new increasingly and lead to desirable advances in this field . In 1981 , a method was invented to make metal clusters . In 1996 . some of public institutions accepted to measure international conditions of attitudes , research and develop in technology and since and so , it this year , scientific and research center of Nanotechnology was established . Now many achievement in industrial fields such as ,electronic,car,wearing,gas,oil,petrochemical and building have obtained by Nanotechnology .